1.) The chapter title ‘On the Edge’ represent the entire chapter by summarizing the events by the use of this language technique of a pun. A pun is a key word or phrase that when used in the right context has two or more meanings almost as a ‘play on words’. On the edge literally is defined as on the brink of an object which in this case is the men on the edge of the mountain. However the other meaning of the phrase perceived by others of ‘On the edge’ is that you are in a precarious position where you are in highly dangerous situation that doesn’t take much fault to lead you in a severe injury or even death.
2.) A language technique used by the author to create a mental, emotional or physical strain/tension is by the consistent use of foreshadowing. Foreshadowing is stating a feeling or prediction before the event has occurred. This is cleverly illustrated by the author in chapter 4 as it creates tension for the reader as the reader starts to get a immense sense of feeling that something bad is about to occur. An example of this is with the quote “We had been on the mountain for over fifty hours and perhaps had become attuned to potential threats; so much so that I had sensed something would happen without understanding quite what it would be”. This quote demonstrates foreshadowing as Joe has this ‘gut’ feeling that something unfortunate was coming however not knowing what it could be. This inserts a mental tension for readers as they have this sense that something bad is occurring but doesn’t know what or when it is going to happen.